(1872-1898) was a writer and illustrator
whose works, although being very beautiful have been much criticised
for their coldness. It is stylised eroticism, and he's a good
example of how some aspects of Art Nouveau were influenced by
the growing decadence of the era in reaction to the stuffiness
of Victorian society. The writer Oscar Wilde was a good friend
of Beardsley, and Beardsley illustrated some of Wilde's books.
Beardsley died at 26. The peacock feather motif is very common
in his work.
H Mackmurdo was
originally a friend of William Morris, founder of the Arts &
Craft Movement. Along with Morris, he was involved in setting
up the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. Over the
years, though, Mackmurdo became far more interested in the idea
of mass production, in order to get the beautiful (and increasingly
practical) homewares they designed to "the people".
As this was against Morris's basic principals of hand-crafting,
they ended up following very different paths. victorianweb.org/art/design/mackmurdo/ahmov.html
Knox was a designer for Liberty & Co, mentioned in
the Aestheticism page. During this later period, he designed
distinctive metalwares for Liberty, including the Tudric Range
of pewterware such as the clock shown here. He also designed
jewellery with similar organic embellishments of twisting vines.
& Co were such leaders in the Art Nouveau Movement
that the style was actually known as "Stile Liberty"
in Italy, after the London company. As you can see by these
examples, not all Art Nouveau in the UK was the rectilinear
style of the Glasgow School. These English examples by Knox
are are curvilinear, with hardly a straight line
to be found in any of the pieces.
Nouveau in Vienna, Austria
Nouveau in Austria was known as Sezessionstil or the Vienna
Secession. One of the foremost of the Guilds was the Wiener
Werkstätte (Vienna Workshop). The Wiener Werkstätte (also
spelled Wiener Werkstaette) produced a wide range of products:
furniture, fabrics, fittings & furnishings, ceramics, metalware,
jewellery, glass, fashion and bookbinding. In the later years,
the designers and architects developed their style into Art Deco
(see later lectures).
Rectilinear line was dominant in both Austrian and German
image search for Art Nouveau Vienna
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of great influence in the Art Nouveau scene in Vienna. He used
gold leaf extensively, and his work was very much influenced by
spelled Joseph Hoffman. An architect who along with Moser was
one of the key founders of the Wiener Werkstätte. Hoffman designed
a wide range of items including architecture, furniture, utensils,
clothing, bookbindings, posters, textiles, and wallpapers. He
was very influenced by William Morris and the ideas of Ruskin
and the Arts & Crafts Movement in the UK.
Nouveau in Germany
Nouveau in Germany was known as Jugendstil.
Art Nouveau has been called the Birthplace of Modern Design. The
Deutscher Werkbund was founded in 1907 to advance the quality
of Industrial Design, and it is from this foundation that the
later Bauhaus style developed - which is probably the most important
school in the history of object design.
was never involved in the anti-mechanisation Arts & Crafts
Movement, and had no philosophical problem with the idea of mass
tended to use geometric forms and undecorated surfaces.
image search for Art Nouveau Germany
(1868-1940) designed many style-setting
electrical appliances. His students included Walter Gropius, Mies
van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, who would later become the "three
giants of 20th Century design".
factors to consider:
Some key technical
in Fine Art:
evolves into Expressionism
and Post Impressionism evolve into Fauvism
begins - will evolve into Modernism.